Jovo Output Object

Learn more about the Jovo $output object.


The Jovo $output is a consolidated JSON object that is prepared during routing, and later turned into a response in the output Middleware.

You can access the object like this:

If you log it after calling the tell method:

The logs for the $output object look like this:

And the generated response would be the following:

If you are reading the logs returned from the server (e.g. AWS CloudWatch), you can use the JSON.stringify() method to turn the object into a human-readable JSON string response:

Output Structure

The $output object can contain elements for tell, ask, as well visual and plaform-specific output.

For example, it looks like this after ask:

Output Middleware

Learn more about the Jovo Framework Architecture here.

The output middleware is used to turn the $output object into a $response object, as shown in the Introduction above.

The middleware turns the cross-platform output into platform-specific JSON responses based on the platform the framework is currently interacting with. This is why the $output object is helpful for Hooks and Plugins, as they then only need to worry about the abstracted object, not any possible response JSON structure.

Comments and Questions

Any specific questions? Just drop them below or join the Jovo Community Forum.

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